Dr Hugh Middleton (Consultant Psychiatrist Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust and the University of Nottingham’s School of Sociology and Social Policy) writes on how research is identifying success stories and offering new strategies for collaboration:
To précis, mental health professionals need to work together if they are to fulfil their potential and deliver the best possible patient care, a new report has revealed (ref. below).
Hospital soap operas, everyday experience and what we hear about the “state of the NHS” all draw attention to strife between those who “do” health care and those who manage them, so it is good to see publication of some fresh research that tries to rise above this. October 10th saw publication of the final report from a three-year investigation of multi-disciplinary team working in mental health. Numerous investigators were involved, including Dr Hugh Middleton and other participating organisations (e.g. Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust).
Healthcare professionals must work together as effective teams if they are to provide the best possible patient care. This is important for mental health services where quality includes consistency and a reassuring sense of being known and understood. Providing these and at the same time working in shifts, so that the service is available beyond office hours, is difficult without great team processes.
Previous research shows that many multi-professional teams fail to perform to their full potential, as they are not clear about their objectives, disagree about goals, their leadership and how to work together; or they find themselves trying unsuccessfully to meet the conflicting demands of senior managers from different disciplines. The Healthcare Commission has discovered that as many as half of all NHS staff may work in dysfunctional teams, which can jeopardise patient care and undermine staff well-being.
The overall aim of this research was to explore such issues in more focused detail amongst teams providing NHS mental health services. A variety of settings were investigated. Service users, their families and friends, a range of mental health practitioners and service managers were all consulted in the course of developing a novel measure of community mental health team effectiveness. Some 1500 practitioners from 120 teams took part in a survey which estimated how effective such teams were, and reported upon what it was like to work in them.
There were strong associations between team effectiveness, measured on a scale which reflects service users’ views of good and bad practice, and the quality of team working. This was assessed using the Aston Team Performance Inventory, a well-established measure of team working. Particular success in providing good quality mental healthcare was found amongst teams that had a clear sense of purpose, welcomed participation in creative problem solving and were well led in a style that encouraged reflective practice.
Alongside this survey the investigators also observed a number of team meetings and interviewed 114 service staff, 31 service users and 13 users’ informal carers. This qualitative research enabled enquiry into the interactions that lie behind numbers derived from the survey. In terms of what matters to service users it revealed disparities between what they find important, such as relationship, flexibility, availability, consistency and understanding, and requirements of the organisational settings from which care is provided.
Of service users, in the words of one community mental health team manager:
“… they don’t really want to see the paperwork and they don’t really want to see the risk assessment, don’t really want to see the care plan, sometimes they’ll talk to us about the care plan but they don’t want copies of it … a care plan doesn’t mean anything to them in that sort of sense but I think we do keep trying to engage with them … “
In relation to creativity, in the words of a support worker:
“So there may be some patients who would really, really benefit from you say taking them for a day at the seaside, because that was what they remembered their parents doing for them when they were little and that would mean so much for them to do that. We obviously can’t do that, and time is probably our most valuable resource really”
These are readily dismissed as intuitive and predictable findings. Perhaps unsurprisingly they relate good clinical mental health outcomes to team creativity, task focus, participation, supportive leadership and interest in true relationship. On the other hand they are also timely and novel. They identify clear relationships between organisational determinants of the practitioner’s context and well-being, and the outcome of their clinical activities. It will require further studies to establish whether such interactions are also present in healthcare settings that are possibly less dependent upon practitioners carrying out “emotional work”, but an element of that is present in all health care settings. What this research demonstrates is that the success with which “emotional work” is conducted, in part reflects the practitioner’s emotional well-being and that is in the hands of those who manage and commission health care. There are connections between the management of health services and the service user’s experience which are not simply reflections of business efficiency, but provide the creative commissioner or manager with more sophisticated opportunities to influence real outcomes.
Reference: West M, Alimo-Metcalfe B, Dawson J, El Ansari W, Glasby J, Hardy G, et al. Effectiveness of Multi-Professional Team Working (MPTW) in Mental Health Care. Final report. NIHR Service Delivery and Organisation programme; 2012.